移民在美國護理行業扮演重要角色

Proposed limits on immigration to the United States may worsen the nation's shortage of workers who care for old and disabled people, a new study finds.
一項新的研究發現,美國擬對移民做出的限制可能會加劇該國照顧老人和殘疾人的員工出現短缺。

More than three million immigrants work within the U.S. healthcare system. That represents 18 percent of all health care workers. Nearly 25 percent of care providers in nursing homes nationwide are immigrants. Nursing homes care for elderly adults and people with a physical disability or long-term health disorder.
超過300萬移民在美國醫療保健系統內工作,占到了全部醫護人員的18%。全美國養老院中近25%的護理人員是移民。養老院負責照顧老人、殘疾人或是長期病患。

Doctor Leah Zallman is a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School in Massachusetts. She was the lead writer of a report on the study. The report appeared earlier this month in the publication Health Affairs.
Leah Zallman博士是馬薩諸塞州哈佛醫學院的一名醫學教授,也是該研究報告的主要作者。這篇報告于本月早些時候發表在《健康事物》刊物上。

Zallman said, "We rely heavily on immigrants to care for the elderly and disabled, particularly in their everyday care."
Zallman表示:“我們非常依賴移民來照顧老年人和殘疾人,尤其是照顧他們的日常生活。”

To take a closer look at the importance of immigrants in the healthcare system, Zallman and other researchers examined the Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the 2018 Current Population Survey.
為了進一步了解移民在醫療保健系統內的重要性,Zallman和其他研究人員審查了2018年當期人口調查的社會經濟年度附錄。

The survey found that 1 million workers in the long-term healthcare industry were immigrants. That represents 23.5 percent of total workers in such jobs.
調查發現長期醫療行業中有100萬員工是移民,占到了這類工作全部員工的23.5%。

Zallman noted that immigrants are especially likely to work overnight hours. "This is an industry that needs people round-the-clock," she said. "They [immigrants] are really filling the gaps."
Zallman指出,移民尤其可能上夜班。她說:“這個行業需要人們夜以繼日地工作,移民們確實填補了這一缺口。”

In 2017, more than 27 percent of direct care workers were immigrants. The study defined "direct care work" as nurses, home health aides or home care aides. Such workers help with everyday activities like helping people eat meals, put on clothes, and wash up.
2017年,超過27%的直接護理工作人員是移民。該研究將直接護理工作人員定義為護士、家庭健康助理或家庭護理助手。這類員工協助日常活動,例如幫助人們吃飯、穿衣和洗漱。

Nurses and health aides perform other duties, such as taking a patient's blood pressure and offering range-of-motion exercises.
護士和健康助理還履行其它職責,例如給患者量血壓以及提供關節活動度練習。

Home care aides may help clean a patient's home and cook food for them. They do not perform medical tasks.
家庭護理助手可以幫助患者打掃房屋和做飯,他們不執行醫療任務。

The elderly population in America is expected to double by the year 2050. Workers who are prepared to care for elderly or disabled patients are already in short supply, the researchers noted.
到2050年,美國老年人口預計將會翻倍。研究人員指出,照顧老人或殘疾患者的合格員工已經供不應求。

The Health Resources and Services Administration predicts a 34-percent rise in the demand for direct care workers over the next 10 years.
美國衛生資源和服務管理局預計未來10年對直接護理工作人員的需求將會增加34%。

Last month, the administration of President Donald Trump proposed legislation that would reduce the number of legal immigrants while placing more importance on educated, skilled immigrants. Such changes, the report noted, "could sharply reduce the number of low-wage immigrant workers.”
上個月,川普政府提出立法,將會在減少合法移民數量的同時更加重視受過教育的、有技術的移民。報告指出,這種改變“可能會大幅減少低工資移民工人的數量。”

Albert Wu is a doctor and professor of health policy at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health in Maryland. He called the new study "very important and timely."
Albert Wu是馬里蘭州約翰霍普金斯公共衛生學院衛生政策的博士和教授。他稱這項新研究“非常重要和及時。”

Wu said, "The current proposal to restrict immigration to more skilled or professional applicants runs directly counter to the need for this category of work."
Wu表示:“目前把移民限制在有技能或專業申請人的建議,跟這類工作的需求背道而馳。”

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