[ti:Study: Negative Dog Training Methods Can Cause Long-Term Harm] [by:www.ljhzhm.tw] [00:00.00]更多聽力請訪問51VOA.COM [00:00.04]A new study suggests that dog training methods based on negative punishments [00:06.72]can cause long-term harm to the animal. [00:11.92]Much research in the past has studied training methods in general, [00:17.36]including for dogs working with police or with search and rescue operations. [00:25.80]But the latest study centered on dogs kept as companion animals for humans. [00:33.84]Such dogs are often considered part of the family [00:38.06]and need training on how to behave around people. [00:44.04]Researchers from Portugual's Unviersity of Porto led the study. [00:51.44]The researchers carried out experiments [00:54.68]involving two kinds of dog training methods – aversive and reward-based. [01:03.40]Aversive methods depend on the use of some kind of negative action [01:09.20]in answer to unwanted behaviors. [01:13.80]Examples of this include shouting, pushing or pulling the dog to force it to do something [01:21.33]or using special collars that put pressure on the neck. [01:27.32]Reward-based methods involve giving the dog food, praise or attention [01:33.92]when the animal completes wanted behaviors. [01:38.80]The study included 92 dogs that were attending training schools in Portugal. [01:46.24]Fifty of the dogs received aversive training, [01:49.73]while 42 were trained using reward-based methods. [01:55.64]The experiments were designed to measure both short-term [01:59.96]and long-term effects of the two training methods. [02:05.28]The dogs were video recorded during training sessions [02:09.59]so researchers could observe their reactions to the training. [02:15.36]Researchers also collected mouth fluid from the dogs before and after the training [02:22.17]to test for levels of a stress-causing hormone called cortisol. [02:29.44]Researchers reported that dogs from the aversive training group [02:34.38]were observed to have more stress-related behaviors than those in the reward-based group. [02:42.88]They also showed increased levels of cortisol. [02:47.68]The study suggests these results clearly demonstrate [02:52.06]the short-term effects of aversive training methods. [02:57.40]Another part of the experiment was designed [03:00.32]to measure the long-term effects of the two different methods. [03:05.32]This involved the dogs taking part in an exercise about a month after the training sessions. [03:13.68]The dogs were put in a room containing food bowls. [03:18.68]Researchers observed how quickly and excitedly the dogs went to the bowls. [03:26.32]The researchers reported that the dogs receiving aversive training [03:30.88]were observed to be more "pessimistic" in behaviors in the room [03:35.82]than the ones trained with rewards. [03:40.04]The latest study supports earlier research on the effectiveness of reward-based training. [03:48.32]Many other studies have suggested that food is the best reward [03:53.69]to get dogs to perform the behaviors we want. [03:59.16]One of those studies was led by Erica Feuerbacher, [04:03.62]a professor at Virginia Tech, in Blacksburg, Virginia. [04:09.32]Her study compared a food reward to a reward of petting or praising the animal. [04:17.64]Feuerbacher told The Associated Press the dogs were clear about what reward they liked better. [04:25.76]"They'll work harder and respond faster for food than for social interaction," she said. [04:34.56]Feuerbacher noted, for example, that research has found that dogs were likely to stay near a person [04:42.36]praising them for the same amount of time as if they were being ignored. [04:49.56]Zazie Todd is the writer of a forthcoming book called "Wag: The Science of Making Your Dog Happy." [04:58.80]She told the AP that people clearly should not expect a dog to obey just because they love them. [05:07.24]"If only it was like that," she said. [05:12.04]Todd added: "If your boss stopped paying you, [05:16.04]you'd probably stop going to work pretty quickly. You need to motivate your dog too." [05:24.48]Some dog trainers teach the use of "life rewards," [05:29.20]which could include play or taking the dog for a walk. [05:34.32]Todd says these can be useful, especially to help keep behaviors the dog has already learned. [05:42.18]However, for most everyday behaviors most people want to teach, [05:48.06]food rewards are just "quicker and easier," she said. [05:55.28]I'm Bryan Lynn. [05:57.20]更多聽力請訪問51VOA.COM 2019六合图库